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Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi

Saddarshanam: Truth Revealed
(The Forty Verses on Reality)


This sacred work is full of the most profound revelations of Self-Knowledge.

An essential text for all interested in Nonduality and the Maharshi’s teachings.

The introduction and translation are taken from the book, Saddarshanam and An Inquiry into the Nature of Truth and Oneself.




Obeisance to Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi

Revealing the Truth,

Removing all obstacles,

Bestowing Knowledge,

As the Lord of all the retinues,

He abides.


Wielding undivided Knowledge,

Destroying a mountain of illusion,

Liberating all from delusion’s dream,

As that which is excellent for the Realization of Brahman,

He shines.


Existing without another,

Granting to all the nectar of immortality,

Silencing all doubts forever,

As That which alone exists, Siva,

He is.

2018 Mahasivaratri



Om Namo Bhagavate Sri Ramanaya

The Truth is silent. He is silent. He is the Silence. A name was given to him: Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi, and the eternal Silence, itself, poured forth in luminous verses, expressing the sublime, supreme Truth. This is Saddarsanam, The Revelation of Truth. In Tamil, it is known as Ulladu Narpadu, The Forty on What Is.

Saddarsanam consists of verses selected from among over eighty verses. This larger body of verses consists of both verses composed by the Maharshi and verses derived from other texts that were translated into Tamil from their Sanskrit originals. The verses selected for the text of Ulladu Narpadu (Saddarsanam) were composed by the Maharshi. Those verses not selected for Ulladu Narpadu (The Forty on What Is) were compiled into the Anubandham, or Supplement. Though the Supplement, too, contains verses of great profundity, this present book concerns itself only with the Saddarsanam verses, which consist of the two invocatory verses, the forty verses, and the two concluding verses by Ganapati Muni that serve the function of a colophon.

The original verses were composed in Tamil by Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi, arranged by Sri Muruganar, and entitled Ulladu Narpadu (The Forty on What Is). The Tamil verses were translated into Sanskrit by Kavyakantha Ganapati Muni (Vasishta Ganapati Muni), who had also selected which verses were to appear as the invocation, and entitled Saddarsanam. The Muni's Sanskrit version is used in this present volume. It is translated in a very literal manner, to the extent that even the order of the Sanskrit words is followed fairly closely in the English wherever possible, even if the English then reads a bit awkwardly. Whenever practical, the point where each English line breaks follows the pattern displayed in the Sanskrit text. In numerous instances, alternative translations of words, phrases, and lines are presented. The aim is to provide the literal meaning free of interpretation and, also, to present the numerous nuances of meaning that can be derived from the text without deviating from a literal translation. With this supplied, the meditating reader can easily, inwardly understand the significance of each verse and, if he chooses, mentally render the verse into a more smoothly flowing set of English words, for a consequence of this style of translation is the loss of the poetic quality of the original text. Reference to the portion of this book entitled “An Inquiry into the Revelation of Truth and Oneself” may be found to be helpful to the understanding of the applicability of this translation for Self-inquiry and Self-Realization and for an explanation of the meaning of those phrases of the translation that may elude complete comprehension at first glance. Words and phrases placed in parenthesis indicate alternative translations of the term or phrase immediately preceding them. Words placed in brackets are those inserted to make the English translation intelligible and are not actually in the Sanskrit text, though they may be implied. The intended result of presenting the translation in this manner is to provide the meditating reader with the full scope of meanings consonant with an experiential understanding of this nondual Knowledge.

Among the English translations of the text are the two by  A. R. Natarajan, as found within his books Sat-Darshana and Teachings of Ramana Maharshi, the two that are found in earlier and later editions of The Collected Works of Ramana Maharshi, one of which is the translation by Professor K. Swaminathan, the one entitled Truth Revealed (Sad-Vidya), which is translated from the Tamil original, the one by “K," which is contained in his Sat-Darshana Bhashya, the one of Dr. T. M. P. Mahadevan from the Tamil text found in Ramana Maharshi and His Philosophy of Existence, the translation by K. Lakshmana Sarma (“Who”) that accompanies his own Sanskrit rendition from the Tamil, as contained in his Sri Ramanahrdayam, Revelation, the one by Swami Tejo­mayananda as contained in Saddarsanam of Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi, the translation by S. S. Cohen, which is said to be an edition derived from six other translations, and the translation by S. Ram Mohan, which is being serially published in the “Mountain Path.” Several of these are published by Sri Ramanasramam, some by the Ramana Maharshi Centre for Learning, and some are by other publishers and by other spiritual institutions dedicated to Vedanta. The translation contained herein is intended to augment and not to substitute for these existing translations.


॥ प्रार्थना ॥
॥ prārthanā ॥



सत्प्रत्ययाः किं नु विहाय सन्तं
हृद्येष चिन्ता रहितो हृदाख्यः।
कथं स्मरामस्तममेयमेकं
तस्य स्मृतिस्तत्र दृढैव निष्ठा ॥ १ ॥

sat-pratyayāḥ kiṃ nu vihāya santaṃ
hṛdyeṣa cintā-rahito hṛd-ākhyaḥ।
kathaṃ smarāmas-tamameyam-ekaṃ
tasya smṛtis-tatra dṛḍhaiva niṣṭhā ॥ 1 ॥

Can there, indeed, be the belief (faith, firm conviction, idea) of existence without that which exists?

In the Heart, free from (devoid of) thoughts, this is called the Heart.

How to think of (remember) (lit., How can we remember) that immeasurable one?

Remembrance of that, therefore, is, indeed, firm abidance (alone). (Or: Remembrance of that is firm abidance therein alone.) (1)


मृत्युञ्जयं मृत्युभियाश्रिताना -
महंमतिर्मृत्युमुपैति पूर्वम्।
अथ स्वभावादमृतेषु तेषु
कथं पुनर्मृत्युधियोऽवकाशः ॥ २ ॥

mṛtyuñjayaṃ mṛtyu-bhiyāśritānām
ahaṃ-matir-mṛtyum-upaiti pūrvam ।
atha svabhāvād-amṛteṣu teṣu
kathaṃ punar-mṛtyu-dhiyo'vakāśaḥ ॥ 2 ॥

For those who have taken refuge, out of fear of death, in the Conqueror of death,

The “I” thought (notion) is the first to attain death.

Thereafter, in them [who] are naturally (by their own nature) immortal,

How again can there be space for the thought of death?  (2)




सर्वैर्निदानं जगतोऽहमश्च
वाच्यः प्रभुः कश्चिदपारशक्तिः ।
चित्रेऽत्र लोक्यं च विलोकिता च
पटः प्रकाशोऽप्यभवत्स एकः ॥ १ ॥

sarvair-nidānaṃ jagato'hamaś-ca
vācyaḥ prabhuḥ kaścid-apāraśaktiḥ ।
citre'tra lokyaṃ ca vilokitā ca
paṭaḥ prakāśo'pyabhavat-sa ekaḥ ॥ 1 ॥

By all, an original (first) cause (original essence) of the universe (world) and of the “I”

Is to be said, the Lord (who is the powerful Master), someone with boundless power.

Variegated here (in this) (In this picture here), the seeing one (the seer) and the seen, and

The screen, and the Light, only (also) He, the One, became. (1)


आरभ्यते जीवजगत्परात्म -
तत्त्वाभिधानेन मतं समस्तम् ।
इदं त्रयं यावदहंमति स्यात्
सर्वोत्तमाऽहंमतिशून्यनिष्ठा ॥ २ ॥

ārabhyate jīva-jagat-parātma -
tattvābhidhānena mataṃ samastam।
idaṃ trayaṃ yāvad-ahaṃ-mati syāt
sarvottamā'haṃ-mati-śūnya-niṣṭhā ॥ 2 ॥

With naming the individual, the world, and the Supreme Self

Principles (verities), all suppositions (doctrines) begin.

(Or: Naming the individual, the world, and the Supreme Self is inherent in suppositions.)

This triad is so long as the “I”-notion will exist (be).

The best of all is abidance void of the “I”-notion (“I”-assumption). (2)


सत्यं मृषा वा चिदिदं जडं वा
दुःखं सुखं वेति मुधा विवादः।
अदृष्टलोका निरहंप्रतीति -
र्निष्ठाऽविकल्पा परमाऽखिलेष्टा ॥ ३ ॥

satyaṃ mṛṣā vā cid-idaṃ jaḍaṃ vā
duḥkhaṃ sukhaṃ veti mudhā vivādaḥ ।
adṛṣṭa-lokā nirahaṃ-pratītir -
niṣṭhā'vikalpā paramā'khileṣṭā ॥ 3 ॥

True or false, this is consciousness or inert,

Suffering or happiness, thus to no purpose (vain) is the dispute (quarrel).

The world is not seen, no “I”-belief (no going toward the “I”)(clear ascertainment of no “I”),

Abidance without differentiation (without doubt), the Absolute (the Supreme), is agreeable for (dear to) all. (3)


सरूपबुद्धिर्जगतीश्वरे च
सरूपधीरात्मनि यावदस्ति।
अरूप आत्मा यदि कः प्रपश्येत्
सा दृष्टिरेकाऽनवधिर्हि पूर्णा ॥ ४ ॥

sarūpa-buddhir-jagatīśvare ca
sarūpa-dhīr-ātmani yāvad-asti ।
arūpa ātmā yadi kaḥ prapaśyet
sā dṛṣṭir-ekā'navadhir-hi pūrṇā ॥ 4 ॥

With-form idea (belief) the world and the Lord [are]

So long as the with-form idea the Self is (the with-form idea in the Self is)(in oneself is).

If the Self is formless, who is to see?

That vision (eye, wisdom, beholding) is one (single), limitless, [and] certainly perfectly full. (4)


यत्पञ्चकोशात्मकमस्ति देहं
तदन्तरा किं भुवनं चकास्ति ।
देहं विना पञ्चविधं तदेतत्
पश्यन्ति के वा भुवनं भणन्तु ॥ ५ ॥

yat-pañcakośātmakam-asti dehaṃ
tad-antarā kiṃ bhuvanaṃ cakāsti ।
dehaṃ vinā pañca-vidhaṃ tadetat
paśyanti ke vā bhuvanaṃ bhaṇantu ॥ 5 ॥

The body is of the nature of the five-fold sheaths (lit.: Which five-fold sheaths forming the nature is the body.)

Without that does the world shine?

Without the five-fold body, that, this here (now),

Who at all see the world? Let them speak. (5)


शब्दादिरूपं भुवनं समस्तं
सत्तेन्द्रियाणां मनसो वशे स्यात्
मनोमयं तद्भुवनं वदामः ॥ ६ ॥

śabdādi-rūpaṃ bhuvanaṃ samastaṃ
śabdādi-sattendriya-vṛtti-bhāsyā ।
sattendriyāṇāṃ manaso vaśe syāt
manomayaṃ tad-bhuvanaṃ vadāmaḥ ॥ 6॥

[Of] the form of sound and others is the entire world.

The existence of sound and others is a mode of the senses made to appear (brought to light).

The existence of the senses in the mind’s power (control) is.

Full of the mind (Composed of the mind) is that world, we say. (or: Full of the mind, therefore, the world is, we say.) (6)


धिया सहोदेति धियास्तमेति
लोकस्ततो धीप्रविभास्य एषः ।
धीलोकजन्मक्षयधाम पूर्णं
सद्वस्तु जन्मक्षयशून्यमेकम् ॥ ७ ॥

dhiyā sahodeti dhiyāstam-eti
lokas-tato dhī-pravibhāsya eṣaḥ ।
dhī-loka-janma-kṣaya-dhāma pūrṇaṃ
sad-vastu janma-kṣaya-śūnyam-ekam ॥ 7 ॥

With the idea (thought, intelligence, mind) rises, with the thought (mind) sets

The world. Therefore, of the mind’s (thought’s) light is this.

The abode (glory, splendor, light) [in which] the mind and world are born and decay (are destroyed, perish) is the perfect fullness,

The real thing (the true Reality), devoid of birth and decay (destruction, perishing), the One. (7)


भवन्तु सद्दर्शनसाधनानि
परस्य नामाकृतिभिः सपर्याः।
सद्वस्तुनि प्राप्ततदात्मभावा
निष्ठैव सद्दर्शनमित्यवेहि ॥ ८ ॥

bhavantu saddarśana-sādhanāni
parasya nāmākṛtibhiḥ saparyāḥ ।
sad-vastuni prāpta-tad-ātma-bhāvā
niṣṭhaiva saddarśanam-ityavehi ॥ 8 ॥

Let them be spiritual practices for the vision (darshanam) of Truth,

Worship (plural) of the Supreme with name and form.

Abidance in the true Reality, the Attainment of that Self-Being (or: Abidance in the True Reality, the attainment of the state ((conviction)) of That is the Self),

Alone is the vision of Truth (true vision). Thus know (understand). (8)


द्वन्द्वानि सर्वाण्यखिलास्त्रिपुट्यः
किञ्चित्समाश्रित्य विभान्ति वस्तु।
तन्मार्गणे स्याद्गलितं समस्तं
न पश्यतां सच्चलनं कदापि ॥ ९ ॥

dvandvāni sarvāṇyakhilās-tripuṭyaḥ
kiñcit-samāśritya vibhānti vastu।
tanmārgaṇe syād-galitaṃ samastaṃ
na paśyatāṃ sac-calanaṃ kadāpi ॥ 9 ॥

All dualities [and] all triads, [On] some thing (Reality) depending (on some thing taking support), shine.

(All dualities and triads shine for some thing ((some reality)) that is the support ((for some thing upon which they depend)))

[When] that is traced (sought), all are loosed and dropped.

For them who see the Truth (Being), there is no movement ever (at any time). (9)

(Not to them who see the Truth is there movement ever.)


विद्या कथं भाति न चेदविद्या
विद्यां विना किं प्रविभात्यविद्या।
द्वयं च कस्येति विचार्य मूल -
स्वरूपनिष्ठा परमार्थविद्या ॥ १० ॥

vidyā kathaṃ bhāti na ced-avidyā
vidyāṃ vinā kiṃ pravibhātyavidyā।
dvayaṃ ca kasyeti vicārya mūla -
svarūpa-niṣṭhā paramārtha-vidyā ॥ 10 ॥

How can knowledge shine if there is not ignorance?

Without knowledge, does ignorance shine?

And “Whose are the two?” thus. Inquiring into the source (root),

Abidance in one’s own (true) nature is the Knowledge of the Supreme Truth. (10)


बोद्धारमात्मानमजानतो यो
बोधः स किं स्यात्परमार्थबोधः।
बोधस्य बोध्यस्य च संश्रयं स्वं
विजानतस्तद्द्वितयं विनश्येत् ॥ ११ ॥

boddhāram-ātmānam-ajānato yo
bodhaḥ sa kiṃ syāt-paramārtha-bodhaḥ।
bodhasya bodhyasya ca saṃśrayaṃ svaṃ
vijānatas-tad-dvitayaṃ vinaśyet ॥ 11 ॥

Can that knowledge that does not know the one who knows oneself (the Self)

Be Knowledge of the Supreme Truth?

(or: Can that knowledge which is of one who does not know the Self ((oneself)))

(or: Can that knowledge that does not know the Self, the one who knows,)

Of knowing and of knowledge (or: the to be known), the support, oneself,

The one who knows shall destroy the two.  (11)


निद्रा न विद्या ग्रहणं न विद्या
गृह्णाति किञ्चिन्न यथार्थबोधे।
निद्रापदार्थग्रहणेतरा स्यात्
चिदेव विद्या विलसन्त्यशून्या ॥ १२ ॥

nidrā na vidyā grahaṇaṃ na vidyā
gṛhṇāti kiñcin-na yathārtha-bodhe।
nidrā-padārtha-grahaṇetarā syāt
cideva vidyā vilasantyaśūnyā ॥ 12 ॥

Sleep is not knowledge. Perceiving (sensing, seizing, grasping, taking into the mind) is not knowledge.

One does not grasp (seize, perceive) anything in true Knowledge.

Different from the categories of sleep and perceiving is

Consciousness alone (indeed); Knowledge shines forth [and is] not a void. (12)


सत्यश्चिदात्मा विविधाकृतिश्चित्
सिध्येत्पृथक्सत्यचितो न भिन्ना।
भूषाविकाराः किमु सन्ति सत्यं
विना सुवर्णं पृथगत्र लोके ॥ १३ ॥

satyaś-cidātmā vividhākṛtiś-cit
sidhyet-pṛthak-satya-cito na bhinnā।
bhūṣā-vikārāḥ kimu santi satyaṃ
vinā suvarṇaṃ pṛthag-atra loke ॥ 13 ॥

The Truth is the Consciousness-Self. Various (manifold) forms of Consciousness

Are not established (accomplished) apart (different). True Consciousness is not divided.

(lit., The Truth is the Consciousness-Self. It is various ((manifold)) forms of Consciousness that are established [as] apart ((different)) [yet] true Consciousness is not divided.

(or: The Truth is the Consciousness-Self. Various ((manifold)) forms of Consciousness are not established as apart [or] divided [from] the true Consciousness.)

Can the change (transformation, modification) of ornaments exist truly

Without the gold, separately (apart), here in this world? (13)


तद्युष्मदोरस्मदि संप्रतिष्ठा
तस्मिन् विनष्टेऽस्मदि मूलबोधात्।
स्थितिर्ज्वलन्ती सहजात्मनः स्यात् ॥ १४ ॥

tad-yuṣmador-asmadi saṃpratiṣṭhā
tasmin vinaṣṭe'smadi mūla-bodhāt।
sthitir-jvalantī sahajātmanaḥ syāt ॥ 14 ॥

“That” and “you” have “us” for a firm basis.

Upon the destruction of that “us” from (by means of) the knowledge of the root (source),

Without the “that,” “you,” and “us” notion, the One

State (Abidance, Stand) shines, the innate Self shall be. (14)


भूतं भविष्यच्च भवत्स्वकाले
तद्वर्तमानस्य विहाय तत्त्वम्।
हास्या न किं स्याद्गतभाविचर्चा
विनैकसंख्यां गणनेव लोके ॥ १५ ॥

bhūtaṃ bhaviṣyac-ca bhavat-svakāle
tad-vartamānasya vihāya tattvam।
hāsyā na kiṃ syād-gata-bhāvi-carcā
vinaika-saṃkhyāṃ gaṇaneva loke ॥ 15 ॥

The past (the having been, the gone) and the future (the to become) are the present (being) in [their] own time.

Relinquishing the Truth of what is presently existing (the present),

Will it not be laughable, repeatedly thinking over (discussion) [what is] gone [and] will be,

Like counting without the number one, in the world? (15)


क्व भाति दिक्कालकथा विनाऽस्मान्
दिक्काललीलेह वपुर्वयं चेत्।
न क्वापि भामो न कदापि भामो
वयं तु सर्वत्र सदा च भामः ॥ १६ ॥

kva bhāti dik-kāla-kathā vinā'smān
dik-kāla-līleha vapur-vayaṃ cet।
na kvāpi bhāmo na kadāpi bhāmo
vayaṃ tu sarvatra sadā ca bhāmaḥ ॥ 16 ॥

Where shines (appears) talk of space (direction) and time without us?

The play of space and time, here, is if we are the body.

Nowhere we shine (appear), at no time we shine (appear),

But we everywhere and always shine. (16)


देहात्मभावे ज्ञजडौ समाना -
वेकस्य देहे हृदि दीप्त आत्मा।
आक्रम्य देहं च जगच्च पूर्णः
परस्य मेयं तनुमात्रमात्मा ॥ १७ ॥

dehātma-bhāve jña-jaḍau samānāv -
ekasya dehe hṛdi dīpta ātmā।
ākramya dehaṃ ca jagac-ca pūrṇaḥ
parasya meyaṃ tanu-mātram-ātmā ॥ 17 ॥

In the body being the Self, the wise (the knower) and the ignorant (the unintelligent) are alike (the same).

(or: In the state of the body-self, the wise and the ignorant are the same).

For the one, in the body, in the heart, the Self illumines,

Including (encompassing, spreading over) the body and the universe, the Perfect Fullness.

For the other, the Self is discernible as only the body

(the Self is only the measure of the body). (17)


अज्ञस्य विज्ञस्य च विश्वमस्ति
पूर्वस्य दृश्यं जगदेव सत्यम्।
परस्य दृश्याश्रयभूतमेकं
सत्यं प्रपूर्णं प्रविभात्यरूपम् ॥ १८ ॥

ajñasya vijñasya ca viśvam-asti
pūrvasya dṛśyaṃ jagad-eva satyam।
parasya dṛśyāśraya-bhūtam-ekaṃ
satyaṃ prapūrṇaṃ pravibhātyarūpam ॥ 18 ॥

For the ignorant and for the wise, the universe is (exists).

For the former, the seen universe, indeed (alone), is the real (the true).

For the other, the seen the resting place has become; the One,

The Real (the Truth), the completely Full, shines as formless.

(or: For the other, the One that has become the resting place of the seen,

The Real, the completely Full, the Formless, shines.) (18)


विधेः प्रयत्नस्य च कोऽपि वाद -
स्तयोर्द्वयोर्मूलमजानतां स्यात्।
विधेः प्रयत्नस्य च मूलवस्तु
सञ्जानतां नैव विधिर्न यत्नः ॥ १९ ॥

vidheḥ prayatnasya ca ko'pi vāda -
s-tayor-dvayor-mūlam-ajānatāṃ syāt।
vidheḥ prayatnasya ca mūla-vastu
sañjānatāṃ naiva vidhir-na yatnaḥ ॥ 19 ॥

The talk (controversy) of fate and of effort (striving) shall be for

Them who do not know the root of these two.

For those who know well the root thing of fate and effort,

There are not, indeed, fate or one’s own activity (free will). (19)


यदीशितुर्वीक्षणमीक्षितार -
मवीक्ष्य तन्मानसिकेक्षणं स्यात्।
न द्रष्टुरन्यः परमो हि तस्य
वीक्षा स्वमूले प्रविलीय निष्ठा ॥ २० ॥

yad-īśitur-vīkṣaṇam-īkṣitāram -
avīkṣya tan-mānasikekṣaṇaṃ syāt।
na draṣṭur-anyaḥ paramo hi tasya
vīkṣā svamūle pravilīya niṣṭhā ॥ 20 ॥

That seeing of the Lord [that is] the seer

Not seeing, that shall be mental seeing.

Not other than the seer is the Supreme, indeed. Of Him

The seeing is in one’s own source (root) the absorption (lit., having been absorbed, dissolved) and abidance. (20)


आत्मानमीक्षेत परं प्रपश्ये -
दित्यागमोक्तेः सुलभो न भावः।
नात्मैव दृश्यो यदि का कथेशे
स्वयं तदन्नीभवनं तदीक्षा ॥ २१ ॥

ātmānam-īkṣeta paraṃ prapaśyed -
ityāgamokteḥ sulabho na bhāvaḥ।
nātmaiva dṛśyo yadi kā katheśe
svayaṃ tad-annī-bhavanaṃ tad-īkṣā ॥ 21 ॥

See the Self, see the Supreme;

Thus, the Agama (the scripture’s) declaration. This is not an easy bhava (state, meditation, contemplation). (or: This is easy, not a way of thinking.)

If the Self is not, indeed, the seen, how can there be talk of the Lord? (how to seek the Lord?)

Oneself becoming His food is that seeing (is seeing Him). (21)


धिये प्रकाशं परमो वितीर्य
स्वयं धियोऽन्तः प्रविभाति गुप्तः।
धियं परावर्त्य धियोन्तरेऽत्र
संयोजनान्नेश्वरदृष्टिरन्या ॥ २२ ॥

dhiye prakāśaṃ paramo vitīrya
svayaṃ dhiyo'ntaḥ pravibhāti guptaḥ।
dhiyaṃ parāvartya dhiyontare'tra
saṃyojanān-neśvara-dṛṣṭir-anyā ॥ 22 ॥

In the mind, the Light the Supreme grants (gives) (lit., having given),

Oneself (Himself) within the mind (or: interior to the mind), He shines hidden.

The mind is to be turned back within (interior to) the mind, here.

From the union (absorption) is the seeing (wisdom) of the Lord, not otherwise. (22)


न वक्ति देहोऽहमिति प्रसुप्तौ
न कोपि नाभूवमिति प्रवक्ति।
यत्रोदिते सर्वमुदेति तस्य
धियाऽहमः शोधय जन्मदेशम् ॥ २३ ॥

na vakti deho'ham-iti prasuptau
na kopi nābhūvam-iti pravakti।
yatrodite sarvam-udeti tasya
dhiyā'hamaḥ śodhaya janmadeśam ॥ 23 ॥

The body does not say “I,” thus. In deep sleep,

No one says, “I did not exist,” thus.

Upon the rise of that (which), all arise. Of that

“I,” with the mind (intelligence), investigate (make clear) the birth place. (23)


देहो न जानाति सतो न जन्म
देहप्रमाणोऽन्य उदेति मध्ये।
अहङ्कृतिग्रन्थिविबन्धसूक्ष्म -
शरीरचेतोभवजीवनामा ॥ २४ ॥

deho na jānāti sato na janma
deha-pramāṇo'nya udeti madhye।
ahaṅkṛti-granthi-vibandha-sūkṣma -
śarīra-ceto-bhava-jīva-nāmā ॥ 24 ॥

The body does not know. Being (Existence), is not born.

The body measured (limited to the body) another arises in the midst (between, in the middle),

Ego, knot, bondage, subtle body,

Mind, bhava (mundane existence, samsara), jiva (the individual) named. (24)


रूपोद्भवो रूपततिप्रतिष्ठो
रूपाशनो धूतगृहीतरूपः।
स्वयं विरूपः स्वविचारकाले
धावत्यहङ्कारपिशाच एषः ॥ २५ ॥

rūpodbhavo rūpa-tati-pratiṣṭho
rūpāśano dhūta-gṛhīta-rūpaḥ।
svayaṃ virūpaḥ svavicāra-kāle
dhāvatyahaṅkāra-piśāca eṣaḥ ॥ 25 ॥

[Its] birth (springing from) is of form, based on a mass of form.

[It is] a feeder on form, one that has given up and grasped form,

Itself formless. Upon (at the time of) inquiry into itself,

It runs [away], this ego-ghost. (25)


भावेऽहमः सर्वमिदं विभाति
लयेऽहमो नैव विभाति किञ्चित्।
तस्मादहंरूपमिदं समस्तं
तन्मार्गणं सर्वजयाय मार्गः ॥ २६ ॥

bhāve'hamaḥ sarvam-idaṃ vibhāti
laye'hamo naiva vibhāti kiñcit।
tasmād-ahaṃ-rūpam-idaṃ samastaṃ
tan-mārgaṇaṃ sarva-jayāya mārgaḥ ॥ 26 ॥

On the becoming of the “I,” all this shines (appears).

On the dissolution of the “I,” not anything, indeed, shines (appears).

Therefore, of the form of “I” is this completely.

That search is the way (path) (Or: the search for That is the way) for victory over all. (26)


सत्या स्थितिर्नाहमुदेति यत्र
विना न नश्येद्यदि तन्न नश्येत्
स्वात्मैक्यरूपा कथमस्तु निष्ठा ॥ २७ ॥

satyā sthitir-nāham-udeti yatra
vinā na naśyed-yadi tanna naśyet
svātmaikya-rūpā kathamastu niṣṭhā ॥ 27 ॥

The Real State (True Abidance) is where “I” does not arise,

And that, without the fervent search (inquiry) for the place of emergence,

Is not destroyed (will not perish). If that is not destroyed (does not perish),

How may there be abidance, of the nature of Oneness of the True (own) Self? (27)


कूपे यथा गाढजले तथान्तः
निमज्ज्य बुद्ध्या शितया नितान्तम्।
प्राणं च वाचं च नियम्य चिन्वन्
विन्देन्निजाहङ्कृतिमूलरूपम् ॥ २८ ॥

kūpe yathā gāḍha-jale tathāntaḥ
nimajjya buddhyā śitayā nitāntam।
prāṇaṃ ca vācaṃ ca niyamya cinvan
vinden-nijāhaṅkṛti-mūla-rūpam ॥ 28 ॥

Just as in a well of water into [which one] has dived deeply, just so, within

One must dive (plunge) with intellect highly (extraordinarily) sharp,

Prana and speech to be controlled (lit., having controlled), inquiring (reflecting on);

One shall find the nature of the root of one’s own ego. (28)


मौनेन मज्जन्मनसा स्वमूल -
चर्चैव सत्यात्मविचारणं स्यात्।
एषोऽहमेतन्न मम स्वरूप -
मिति प्रमा सत्यविचारणाङ्गम् ॥ २९ ॥

maunena majjan-manasā svamūla -
carcaiva satyātma-vicāraṇaṃ syāt।
eṣo'ham-etanna mama svarūpam -
iti pramā satya-vicāraṇāṅgam ॥ 29 ॥

By silent diving by the mind [into] the true (one’s own) root:

[This] inquiry (consideration), indeed, (alone) shall be true Self-inquiry.

“This I am, this is not my true (own) nature,”

Thus, [this] correct idea (understanding, knowledge) is a limb of (unessential to, secondary to, inferior to) true inquiry. (29)


गवेषणात्प्राप्य हृदन्तरं तत्
पतेदहन्ता परिभुग्नशीर्षा।
अथाहमन्यत्स्फुरति प्रकृष्टं
नाहङ्कृतिस्तत्परमेव पूर्णम् ॥ ३० ॥

gaveṣaṇāt-prāpya hṛdantaraṃ tat
pated-ahantā paribhugna-śīrṣā।
athāham-anyat-sphurati prakṛṣṭaṃ
nāhaṅkṛtis-tat-parameva pūrṇam ॥ 30 ॥

From (by) the search is to be attained (reached) (lit., having attained, having reached), within the Heart, That.

The “I” consciousness shall fall, head bowed.

Then, another “I” shines forth, preeminent (superior).

It is not the ego. That is the Supreme alone (indeed), the Perfect Fullness. (30)


अहङ्कृतिं यो लसति ग्रसित्वा
किं तस्य कार्यं परिशिष्टमस्ति।
किञ्चिद्विजानाति स नात्मनोऽन्यत्
तस्य स्थितिं भावयितुं क्षमः कः ॥ ३१ ॥

ahaṅkṛtiṃ yo lasati grasitvā
kiṃ tasya kāryaṃ pariśiṣṭam-asti।
kiñcid-vijānāti sa nātmano'nyat
tasya sthitiṃ bhāvayituṃ kṣamaḥ kaḥ ॥ 31 ॥

[He] who shines, having swallowed (consumed, caused to disappear) the ego,

For him, what is left remaining to be done?

He knows not anything other than the Self.

Who is able to conceive of his state? (31)


आह स्फुटं तत्त्वमसीति वेद -
स्तथाप्यसंप्राप्य परात्मनिष्ठाम्।
भूयो विचारो मतिदुर्बलत्वं
तत्सर्वदा स्वात्मतया हि भाति ॥ ३२ ॥

āha sphuṭaṃ tat-tvam-asīti vedas -
tathāpyasaṃprāpya parātma-niṣṭhām।
bhūyo vicāro mati-durbalatvaṃ
tat-sarvadā svātmatayā hi bhāti ॥ 32 ॥

Aha. The Veda has made clear (clearly opened) “That you are,” thus.

So, still, abidance as the Supreme Self is not to be completely attained.

More inquiry is weakness (feebleness) of the mind (weakness of conviction).

That always, as one’s own Self, indeed, shines. (32)


न वेद्म्यहं मामुत वेद्म्यहं मा -
मिति प्रवादो मनुजस्य हास्यः।
दृग्दृश्यभेदात्किमयं द्विधात्मा
स्वात्मैकतायां हि धियां न भेदाः ॥ ३३ ॥

na vedmyahaṃ mām-uta vedmyahaṃ mām -
iti pravādo manujasya hāsyaḥ।
dṛg-dṛśya-bhedāt-kim-ayaṃ dvidhātmā
svātmaikatāyāṃ hi dhiyāṃ na bhedāḥ ॥ 33 ॥

“I know not me,” or “I know me,”

Thus, expressions of man are to be laughed at.

From the difference of the seer and the seen, is this Self divided in two (twofold)?

The Oneness of oneself (the true Self), indeed, is the understanding (knowledge) [that there are] no differences. (33)


हृत्प्राप्यसद्धाम निजस्वरूपे
स्वभावसिद्धेऽनुपलभ्य निष्ठाम्।
मायाविलासः सदसत्सरूप -
विरूपनानैकमुखप्रवादाः ॥ ३४ ॥

hṛt-prāpya-sad-dhāma nija-svarūpe
svabhāva-siddhe'nupalabhya niṣṭhām।
māyā-vilāsaḥ sad-asat-sarūpa -
virūpa-nānaika-mukha-pravādāḥ ॥ 34 ॥

Not having attained (obtained) the abidance in the established Self (true) Existence

(or: Not having attained ((obtained)) the abidance in the accomplishment of the true ((Self)) state),

The attaining of (reaching) the Heart, the true abode, in the innate True Nature (in one’s own innate nature),

A play (echo) of maya (illusion) are “real, unreal, with form,

Without form, many (separate, different), one;” [they are] proclamations of the mouth. (34)


सिद्धस्य वित्तिः सत एव सिद्धिः
स्वप्नोपमानाः खलु सिद्धयोऽन्याः।
स्वप्नः प्रबुद्धस्य कथं नु सत्यः
सति स्थितः किं पुनरेति मायाम् ॥ ३५ ॥

siddhasya vittiḥ sata eva siddhiḥ
svapnopamānāḥ khalu siddhayo'nyāḥ।
svapnaḥ prabuddhasya kathaṃ nu satyaḥ
sati sthitaḥ kiṃ punar-eti māyām ॥ 35 ॥

The Knowledge of the established Truth (Being) alone is accomplishment.

Comparable to (resembling) a dream, indeed, are other accomplishments.

The dream of one who is awakened, how can it now be true?

Does one who abides in Truth (Being) again approach illusion? (35)


सोऽहंविचारो वपुरात्मभावे
साहाय्यकारी परमार्गणस्य।
स्वात्मैक्यसिद्धौ स पुनर्निरर्थो
यथा नरत्वप्रमितिर्नरस्य ॥ ३६ ॥

so'haṃ-vicāro vapur-ātma-bhāve
sāhāyyakārī para-mārgaṇasya।
svātmaikya-siddhau sa punar-nirartho
yathā naratva-pramitir-narasya ॥ 36 ॥

The “He am I” inquiry, when in the “body is the Self” state (conception),

Is helpful for the search for (the path to) the Supreme.

In the true Self (one’s own Self) Oneness Accomplishment, that again is purposeless (useless, meaningless),

Just as the correct notion (conception) of man-ness (manhood) of a man. (36)


द्वैतं विचारे परमार्थबोधे
त्वद्वैतमित्येष न साधुवादः।
गवेषणात्प्राग्दशमे विनष्टे
पश्चाच्च लब्धे दशमत्वमेकम् ॥ ३७ ॥

dvaitaṃ vicāre paramārtha-bodhe
tvadvaitam-ityeṣa na sādhu-vādaḥ।
gaveṣaṇāt-prāg-daśame vinaṣṭe
paścāc-ca labdhe daśamatvam-ekam ॥ 37 ॥

“Duality in inquiry, but in the Knowledge of the Supreme Truth,

Nonduality,” thus. This is not good (holy) speech (doctrine, advice, proposition).

Prior to the search, when the tenth [man] was lost,

And after, when found, the tenth-ness is one (that one only, the same). (37)


करोमि कर्मेति नरो विजानन्
बाध्यो भवेत्कर्मफलं च भोक्तुम्।
विचारधूता हृदि कर्तृता चेत्
कर्मत्रयं नश्यति सैव मुक्तिः ॥ ३८ ॥

karomi karmeti naro vijānan
bādhyo bhavet-karma-phalaṃ ca bhoktum।
vicāra-dhūtā hṛdi kartṛtā cet
karma-trayaṃ naśyati saiva muktiḥ ॥ 38 ॥

“I do karma (action),” thus a man considering (regarding)

A bound one becomes and enjoys (experiences) the result (fruit) of karma.

If, by inquiry in the heart, doership is removed (cast off)

The triple karma perishes (is destroyed). That alone is Liberation. (38)


बद्धत्वभावे सति मोक्षचिन्ता
बन्धस्तु कस्येति विचारणेन।
सिद्धे स्वयं स्वात्मनि नित्यमुक्ते
क्व बन्धचिन्ता क्व च मोक्षचिन्ता ॥ ३९ ॥

baddhatva-bhāve sati mokṣa-cintā
bandhas-tu kasyeti vicāraṇena।
siddhe svayaṃ svātmani nitya-mukte
kva bandha-cintā kva ca mokṣa-cintā ॥ 39 ॥

With the being in the conception of bondage, is the anxious thought of Liberation.

But bondage of whom? Thus, by the inquiry,

In the accomplishment of himself (of itself), in one’s own (true) Self, one is ever-liberated.

(or: Is established of itself, in one’s own Self, the ever-liberated.)

Where is the anxious thought of bondage, and where is the anxious thought of Liberation? (39)


रूपिण्यरूपिण्युभयात्मिका च
मुक्तिस्त्रिरूपेति विदो वदन्ति।
इदं त्रयं या विविनक्त्यहन्धी -
स्तस्याः प्रणाशः परमार्थमुक्तिः ॥ ४० ॥

rūpiṇyarūpiṇyubhayātmikā ca
muktis-trirūpeti vido vadanti।
idaṃ trayaṃ yā vivinaktyahan-dhīs -
tasyāḥ praṇāśaḥ paramārtha-muktiḥ ॥ 40 ॥

Having a form, having no form, and of the nature of both kinds,

Liberation is of three forms, thus, the knowers say.

The complete destruction of that “I”-notion (conception of individuality) that examines (ponders) this triad

Is the Supreme Truth of Liberation. (40)


सद्दर्शनं द्राविडवाङ्निबद्धं
महर्षिणा श्रीरमणेन शुद्धम्।
प्रबन्धमुत्कृष्टममर्त्यवाण्या -
मनूद्य वासिष्ठमुनिर्व्यतानीत् ॥ ४१ ॥

saddarśanaṃ drāviḍa-vāṅ-nibaddhaṃ
maharṣiṇā śrī-ramaṇena śuddham।
prabandham-utkṛṣṭam-amartya-vāṇyām -
anūdya vāsiṣṭha-munir-vyatānīt ॥ 41 ॥

Saddarsanam composed in the Dravida language,

By Maharshi Sri Ramana pure,

The composition excellent (highest, best), in the immortals’ language

Spoken afterward by Vasishta Muni was composed. (41)


सत्तत्त्वसारं सरलं दधाना
मुमुक्षुलोकाय मुदं ददाना।
अमानुषश्रीरमणीयवाणी -
मयूखभित्तिर्मुनिवाग्विभाति ॥ ४२ ॥

sat-tattva-sāraṃ saralaṃ dadhānā
mumukṣu-lokāya mudaṃ dadānā।
amānuṣa-śrī-ramaṇīya-vāṇī -
mayūkha-bhittir-muni-vāg-vibhāti ॥ 42 ॥

Giving honestly (straight-forwardly, sincerely) the Essence of the Truth of Being (Existence),

Giving joy to the world of seekers of Liberation,

The divine (not a man) Sri Ramana’s (delightful, agreeable) voice ,

The rays of Light, as a wall-like surface (as a fragment), the Muni’s speech (words) shines. (42)